Student Enrollment – Procedure and Regulation

Required Age:  

16 and above

 Education:

High School Diploma or GED or Test for Adult Basic Education (Test with qualified scored)

 Legal Status:

Good moral character and temperate habit

Student Enrollment Required Documents:

  1. Social Security Card
  2. Driver License or Green Card
  3. High School Diploma or GED or Test for Adult Basic Education (Test with qualified scored) – 10th Grade Transcript

Student Enrollment Procedure:

  1. Fill Student Application
  2. Fill Student Agreement
  3. School Hour Tracking Clock Registration
  4. Provide Student Handbooks and School Regulation document
  5. Provide books and kits
  6. Explain school hours and regulation
  7. Discuss student tuition payment plan

Tuition and Fee Summary:

  1. State Board of Cosmetology of Kentucky – Student Enrollment Fee: $15
  2. Tuition Cost (50-70% OFF) – Based on course
  3. Book Cost
  4. Kit Cost
  5. Uniform Cost

References

Kentucky State Board – Statutes & Regulations

http://kbhc.ky.gov/Pages/Statutes-and-Regulations.aspx

http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/record/12RS/HB311/bill.doc

LBA-EnrollmentProcess-EnglishNVietnamese

Học Xinh Ghi Danh – Quá Trình Và Điều Lệ

Tuổi Cho Học Viên:

Tuổi 16 trở lên

Học Vấn:

      Bằng Trung Học hay Tương Tự 

Tìng Trạng Pháp Lý:

Luân lý tốt và tính tình ôn hòa

 Giấy Tờ Mang Theo Khi Đắng Ký Học:

  • Social Security Card
  • Bằng Lái Xe hay Thể Xanh
  • Bằng Trung Học hay Giấy Trứng Minh Tương Tự
    • Như: Giấy Trứng Điểm Lớp 10 trở lên

 Giấy Tờ Cần Điền và Quá Trình Khi Đắng Ký Học:

  • Giấy Đắng Ký Học
  • Giấy Học Thỏa Thuận
  • Ghi Học Viên Vào Đồng Học
  • Trao Học Viên Trương Trình Học và Quy Lệ Trường và Hội Đồng Quản Trị Kentucky
  • Trao Sách/Tài Liệu Lớp Học và Bộ Dụng Cụ
  • Giả Thích Giờ Học và Qui Trình Học

Học Phí Tóm Lược:

  • Hội Đồng Quản Trị Kentucky – Tiền Học Viên Ghi Danh: $15
  • Học Phí (50-70% Giẳm)– Theo Trương Trình Học
  • Tiền Sách Vở
  • Tiền Dụng Cụ
  • Tiền Đẩm Phục

 

Tài Liêu Tham Khảo

Hội Đồng Quản Trị Kentucky – Điều Lệ & Qui Luật

http://kbhc.ky.gov/Pages/Statutes-and-Regulations.aspx

http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/record/12RS/HB311/bill.doc

LBA-EnrollmentProcess-EnglishNVietnamese

Hội Đồng Quản Trị Thẩm Mỹ Kentucky – Danh Sách Chi Phí

Hội Đồng Quản Trị Thẩm Mỹ Kentucky – Danh Sách Chi Phí

 

Chi Phí Giấy Phép

Loại Giẩy Phép

Chi Phí Đợt Đầu

Chi Phí Đổi Bằng

Chi Phí Phục Hồi Bằng

Nghề Viên Thấm Mỹ Mới $25 $20 $75
Nghề Viên Thấm Mỹ Chuyên Nghiệp $25 $20 $75
Nghề Viên Móng Tay Chân $25 $20 $75
Hưỡng Dẫn Viên Mới $35 $25 $75
Hưỡng Dẫn Viên Chuyên Nghiệp $50 $35 $100
Hưỡng Dẫn Viên Hai Nghành Thẩm Mỹ và Da $150 $110 $220
Nghề Viên Da $75 $50 $125
Nghề Viên Thẩm Mỹ và Da $100 $70 $140
Hưỡng Dẫn Viên Da $100 $75 $150
Tiệm Thẩm Mỹ $35 $25 $75
Tiệm Móng Tay Chân $35 $25 $75
Nhà Thầu Độc Lập $35 $25 $75
Tiệm Da $125 $75 $150
Nhà Thầu Độc Lập Da $125 $75 $150
Trường Thẩm Mỹ $1500 $150 $750
 

Chi Phí Kiểm Tra

Kiểm Tra

Chi Phí

Nghề Viên Thấm Mỹ Mới $75 / Lấy Lại $32
Nghề Viên Thấm Mỹ Chuyên Nghiệp $75 / Lấy Lại $32
Hai Nghề Viên Thẩm Mỹ và Da $125 / Lấy Lại $62
Nghề Viên Da $125 / Lấy Lại $62
Hưỡng Dẫn Viên $100 / Lấy Lại $50
Nghề Viên Móng Tay Chân $75 / Lấy Lại $32
Ngoài Tiểu Bang – Nghề Viên Thấm Mỹ Chuyên Nghiệp $120 / Lấy Lại $60
Ngoài Tiểu Bang – Hưỡng Dẫn Viên Da $250 / Lấy Lại $125
Ngoài Tiểu Bang – Nghề Viên Da $175 / Lấy Lại $82
Ngoài Tiểu Bang – Hưỡng Dẫn Viên Thẩm Mỹ $200 / Lấy Lại $100

 

 

Chi Phí Khác

Chú Thích

Giá Cả

Chứng Chỉ $20
Giấy Phép Bản Sao $25
Chứng Chỉ Da Bản Sao $75
Giấy Phép Thuyết Trình $50
Giấy Phéư Học Viên Ghi Danh $15
Nhà Cung Cấp Học Giáo Dục Tiếp Tục $300

 

Kentucky State Board – Fees

Kentucky Board of Hairdressers & Cosmetologists

License Fees

License Type

First Fee

Renewal Fee

Restoration Fee

Apprentice Cosmetologist $25 $20 $75
Cosmetologist $25 $20 $75
Nail Technician $25 $20 $75
Apprentice Instructor $35 $25 $75
Cosmetology Instructor $50 $35 $100
Dual Cosmetology/Esthetic Instructor $150 $110 $220
Esthetician $75 $50 $125
Dual Cosmetologist/Esthetician $100 $70 $140
Esthetic Instructor $100 $75 $150
Beauty Salon $35 $25 $75
Nail Salon $35 $25 $75
Independent Contractor $35 $25 $75
Esthetic Salon $125 $75 $150
Esthetician Independent Contractor $125 $75 $150
Cosmetology School $1500 $150 $750

Examination Fees

Exam

Fee

Apprentice Cosmetologist $75 / Retake $32
Cosmetologist $75 / Retake $32
Dual Cosmetologist/Esthetic $125 / Retake $62
Esthetician $125 / Retake $62
Instructor $100 / Retake $50
Nail Technician $75 / Retake $32
Out of State Cosmetologist $120 / Retake $60
Out of State Esthetic Instructor $250 / Retake $125
Out of State Esthetician $175 / Retake $82
Out of State Instructor $200 / Retake $100

 

Other Fees

Description

Cost

Certification $20
Duplicate License $25
Esthetic Duplicate License $75
Demonstration Permits $50
Student Enrollment Permits $15
Continuing Education Provider Fee $300

 

TRƯỜNG ĐÀO TẠO THẨM MỸ – Louisville Beauty Academy – TUYỂN SINH

Louisville Beauty Academy

Trựờng Đào Tạo Nghề Thẩm Mỹ Chuyên Nghiệp

Uy Tín Nhất – Chất Lượng Nhất

Do Người Việt Làm Chủ

Tại Thành Phố Louisville, tiểu bang Kentucky

Tuyển Sinh

Đào Tạo

Thẩm Mỹ

Chăm Sóc, Cát và Uốn Tóc

Chăm Sóc Móng Tay

Chăm Sóc Da

CAM KẾT MANG ĐẾN CHO HỌC VIÊN NHỮNG KIẾN THỨC CHUYÊN SÂU NHẤT TRONG NGÀNH

CAM KẾT HỌC VIÊN ĐƯỢC ĐÀO TẠO ĐÚNG NHƯ CHƯƠNG TRÌNH HỌC CỦA LUẬT KENTUCKY

HỌC VIÊN ĐƯỢC KÝ HỢP ĐỒNG ĐÀO TẠO KHI NHẬP HỌC ĐỂ ĐẢM BẢO QUYỀN LỢI CỦA HỌC VIÊN TRONG KHOÁ HỌC

Xin Liên Hệ Tại

Địa Chỉ

1049 Bardstown Rd

Louisville, KY 40204

Phone

502-625-5531

Email

LouisvilleBeautyAcademy@Gmail.com

LBA-TuyenSinh-QuangCao

Louisville Beauty Academy – Environment Geared for Success

Louisville Beauty Academy believes in success that are geared with right tools and guided with right teacher/instructor/mentors/coach. For these reasons, we ensure our school environment is up for the task with:

  1. Instructors with many years experience in Cosmetology Fields
  2. Brand Names tools are used only:
    1. Chi Products – for Cosmetology
    2. CND Products – for Nail Technicians
    3. Milady – for books/course materials
  3. School are on highest traffic street in Louisville KY – Bardstown Road (Highland) – This is important to provide students with real live customers for professional interaction and training

 

Louisville Beauty Academy – Grand Opening – Enrollment Start Now

Louisville Beauty Academy LLC is happy to announce that today (January 12th, 2017), our beauty school  is official open.

  1. HIRING COSMETOLOGY INSTRUCTOR
  2. ENROLLING NEW STUDENT  – WITH BIG SCHOLARSHIP THAT NEVER EXIST BEFORE
    • Contact us now for more information about our immediate 50-70% SCHOLARSHIP

      • Primary Location:
        • 1049 Bardstown Rd
        • Louisville, KY 40204
      • www.LouisvilleBeautyAcademy.net
      • LouisvilleBeautyAcademy@gmail.com
      • 502-625-5531
        • Best with Text
    • Send us your information through Text or Email and we will contact you right back
      • Your First + Last Name
      • Course you are looking to attend: Cosmetology, Nail Technician, Cosmetology Instructor, Aesthetic
      • Best Contact Info:
        • Cell Phone
        • Email
        • Home Phone

WE ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO HEAR FROM YOU – those we are excitedly ready to help 

 

Nail Industry – Origin and Correlation to Vietnamese Population today

Objective

This is a literature review on the topic of Nail Industry that includes Finger Nail, Toe Nail, Manicure, Pedicure, Artificial Tip, and etc… This article synthesizes definition, origin/history, current state and roughly on the future state of the nail industry.

Motivation

With popularity and prevalence of nail industry today, not many actual fully grasp the origin/history nor have much knowledge on this industry. This article is written with a mindset of sharing this important knowledge and allow us all to recognize how far this market has leaped from what it was before to where it is today.

Introduction

The nail salon has become a common feature of American towns, cities,   neighborhoods and shopping malls throughout the United States (Roelofs, & Do, 2012). The nail industry has substantially grown in the USA in the last two decades (Quach, Nguyen, Doan-Billings, Okahara, Fan, Reynolds, 2008). The factor of the rapid nail industry growth is found majorly among the Vietnamese immigrant and a minor number within other Asians; those who have transformed the beauty industry and implemented the market of an affordable pedicure, manicures, and artificial nails (Federman, Harrington, & Krynski, 2006).

According to Wahowiak (2015), there are more than 2000 business licensed to do manicures and pedicure in New York City alone. The US. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2015) estimated there are around 86,900 manicurists and pedicurists in the US in 2012; and with the growth rate, the number is estimated to rise to around 100, 400 by the year 2022. The count and estimation by the US. Bureau of Labor is proven to be on the low side, or offset a lot in comparison to the current number as of 2015. In California, there are currently more than 97,000 manicurists; and 80% of these technicians are Vietnamese immigrants (California Healthy Nails Salon Collaborative, 2015).

Based on Nails Magazines as of 2010, there are between 350,000 and 376,000 nails technicians working in the US (NAILS, 2010). The majority of the establishment of nail services are in two categories: 1) nail services only entities, and 2) nail services with additional comprehensive cosmetic business such as waxing, and Spa (Alaves, Sleeth, Thiese, & Larson, 2013). The growth of the nail industry in the US is continuous at a significant rate and in range of large number both in the workforce and the business entity for good reasons; especially among the Asian, and specifically Vietnamese immigrants.

Why Nail Industry is Attractive?

The attraction to the nail industry come in two main perspectives: 1) business ownership, and 2) quick and easy job finding (Quach, Nguyen, Doan-Billings, Okahara, Fan, & Reynolds, 2008; Ly, & Tufts University, 2003; Wahowiak, 2015). In the last few decades, Quach, Nguyen, Doan-Billings, Okahara, Fan, and Reynolds, (2008) indicate that the nail business ownership and workforce have tripled in size; and dramatically to accounts and includes large numbers of immigrated workers. The estimated Vietnamese licensed nail technicians increase 10 times between 1987 and 2002 (Federman, Harrington, and Krynski, 2006).

From the job finding perspectives, the nail technician is attractive for the following reasons: 1) flexibility in the salon working hour, 2) ease with the onboarding process, and 3) quick capability in money making (Wahowiak, 2015). Nail job is especially fit for immigrants because of 1) the short, inexpensive and readily training 2) flexible schedule that works around the immigrant mothers with family obligations, and 3) less expectation in English proficiency (Ly, & Tufts University, 2003). “To do nail salon work, you don’t need high English proficiency” (pg. 2), and the language barrier is a challenge for most aged and mid-aged immigrants in the job seeking process (Wahowiak, 2015).

An example of the ease with the on-boarding process (Wahowiak, 2015), and short, inexpensive and readily training (Ly, & Tufts University, 2003) is shown through California State Board of Barbering procedure. Because of the large demand in Vietnamese nail technician, the state of California has made Vietnamese as one of the primary foreign language options for the nail technician license examinations (BBC, 2006); and this also translates to the availability of the Vietnamese training and guides.

In the perspective of nail business ownership, the nail sector is a great fit for those who have high interest in beauty business ownership and control; because nail sector has been showing consistent and significant economic growth in recent years (Gilels, Gorman, Huang, Liou, Mendiratta, & Philip, 2008). There is a noticeable increasing number of Vietnamese owned shops and beauty schools; a sign and strong indicator that nail has become more of a profession than a job (Gilels, Gorman, Huang, Liou, Mendiratta, & Philip, 2008). This research is interested in and focused on the impacts of the nail industry in general, and the specific nail services have on a particular nail salon business.

History of Nail Salon/Industry

According to Walsh (2012), the nail salon as the so-called “modern-day” nail salons is founded and originated in the early 1900s in the United States. In 1910, New York City has a beauty care places called “Pedicure Clinics” where the working class individuals get their feet treated (NYT, 1910). For the higher class, those with larger incomes; the alternatives and better nail services are provided at the Elizabeth Arden Red Door salon during the nail salon time of birth (Elizabeth Arden, 2015). In the same period, writing about manicuring are starting to widely publish such as ones from Woodbury that includes: 1) Beauty Culture (Woodbury, 1910), and 2) The Care of the Hand (Woodbury, 1915).

The beginning of the modern nail salon marks the start of the nail related invention. The US Patents (1915) for the fingernail shield is a good example of the nail related inventions; where the patent is filed about the nail shields (a discoloration nail production product that provides a clean and clear nail appearance). In the following decades, the nail salon industry takes a big leap when more immigrant women arrive into the United States and open up nail salons (Federman, Harrington, & Krynski, 2006; NAILS, 2010; California Healthy Nails Salon Collaborative, 2015).

Growth in Nail Salon Business

According to Nail Magazine, the nail salon industry is one of the fastest growing sectors within the beauty industry that comes with the market size of above $7 billion (NAILS, 2010; NAILS, 2013). The growth of the nail workers (technicians) is estimated to be closer to 20% between 2008 and 2018 (Walsh, 2012), which far exceeds the average growth rate of other occupations that are within the 10% mark (Lacey, & Wright, 2009); when these number is potentially in a lower side of the estimation based on California Healthy Nails Salon Collaborative (2015).

For ease of visualization of the growth within the nail industry, Walsh (2012) provides a comparison with the Starbucks business as such: “for every one Starbucks retail outlet in the United States, there are more than four nail salons”. The factors that explain the booming of the nail industry are: 1) increase attention towards personal grooming, 2) the sudden movement in a woman in labor market, and 3) the arrival of low-cost, and convenient nail salon (Walsh, 2012). The nail salon is used to be a luxury only service; and today it is about the affordable, low cost, treat and pamper yourself, and easily accessible service (Greenhouse, 2007).

Types of Nail Service

The modern nail beautification is big industry today that comprise of various nail cosmetics such as 1) nail hardeners, 2) polishes, 3) extensions, 4) artificial/sculpted nails, and 5) nail decorations (Madnani, & Khan, 2012). Any of the nail treatment procedures involves a number of steps and the applications of a series of products; that Madnani, and Khan (2012) as follows:

Services Service Description
Manicure / Pedicure
  1. Clean off previous polish using chemical removal.
  2. Cut nails to the desired length
  3. Soak hand/feet in warm water with mild detergent for dirt removal
  4. Buff away rough skin or thick callus
  5. Remove cuticle
  6. Smooth nail surface
  7. Massage foot/hand with a gentle cream
  8. Nail polish
Nail Hardener
  1. Clean nail surface
  2. Apply based coat to nails (for purpose of strengthening the nail plate)
Polishes Apply nail polish for the following purposes:

1)      Beautification

2)      Strengthen weak brittle nails

3)      Hide or disguise the irregularities or discoloration of the nail surface

Polishes removal 1)      Remove polish using Acetone or acetone-free nail polish remover

2)      Smoothen or buff nail surface for new polish application

Extension / Artificial / sculpted Nails Comes with multiple ways and styles:

1)      Nails tips: application or gluing of plastic plates on the tips of real nails, and polish is applied on top.

2)      Sculptured nails: application of acrylic or gel over the existing nail. This process involves a mixture of powder and a solution; applied to the nail.

a.       Acrylic Nails: a mixture of ethyl methacrylate liquid and poly-methacrylate powder, results in a polymerized mixture that is moldable in nail desired shapes.

b.      Gel nails: a mixture of powder and the liquid gels along with the UV-light exposure to create nail extension. This solution is alike the dental resin. The strength and durability of gel nail is so great that the only way to remove Gel nail is to manually buff it off

Nail Decorations Nails decoration comes in multiple forms and styles:

1)      Nail arts: the application of nail polish art; manual draw and styling using nail polish

2)      Nail airbrush: the application of airbrush paint over the nail surface, and sealed over with top coat

3)      Nail sculpture art: the application of nail style and art using acrylic or gel

According to Eckstein and Nguyen (2011), nail service is a relatively new occupation. The US Department of Labor cites a nail care category as a job classification in the 1980s, and the nail salons as a business classification are added to the list of US Bureau of Labor Statistics list of job categories (Eckstein & Nguyen, 2011). The professional nail care has always been a complimentary service within the hair salon (American Salon., 2005); which branches off and develops as self-standing nail salons.

Who is a Nail Technician?

The nail services are performed or served by the nail professional, so-called nail technician (Alaves, Sleeth, Thiese, & Larson, 2013; BBC, 2006; NAILS, 2010). Nail technicians refer to professionals who are legally licensed by the state government; ones that are tested and agreed to comply with the nail salon licensing procedures (Walsh, 2012). The nails licensing requirement is different from state to state, but the process generally comprises of requirements such as 1) basic age, 2) health level, 3) educational criteria and 4) testing or examination minimal score (Walsh, 2012).

There are legal standards that must be met to be a licensed nail technician that includes the attained based knowledge of 1) manicure and pedicure technique, 2) safety and health, 3) bacteria and infectious deceases, 4) chemical methods of sanitation, and 5) sanitary rule and regulation (Walsh, 2012). To be a nail salon owner, Walsh (2012) elaborates that a licensed technician must also obtain a general business license from the city or state to operate as a nail salon owner.

References

Alaves, V. M., Sleeth, D. K., Thiese, M. S., & Larson, R. R. (2013). Characterization of indoor air contaminants in a randomly selected set of commercial nail salons in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 23(5), 419–433. http://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2012.755152

Agusthiyar R., & Narashiman, K. (2015). An ETL Based Framework For Data Cleaning In Multi Data Source. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10(4), 1005–10014.

American Salon. (2005). Green Book. Cleveland, Ohio: Advanstar Communications

Brettell, C. B., & K. E. Alstatt (2007). The Agency of Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Biographies of the Self-Employed in Ethnic and Occupational Niches of the Urban Labor Market. Journal of Anthropological Research 63:383–397

California Healthy Nails Salon Collaborative. (2015). About Healthy Nail Salons | California Healthy Nail Salon Collaborative. Retrieved from http://www.cahealthynailsalons.org/what-is-hns/about-healthy-nail-salons/

California State Board of Barbering, Cosmetology (BBC). (2006). Application for examination. Sacramento, CA, USA: California State Board of Barbering and Cosmetology.

Eckstein, S., & Nguyen, T.-N. (2011). The Making and Transnationalization of an Ethnic Niche: Vietnamese Manicurists. International Migration Review, 45(3), 639–674. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2011.00861.x

Elizabeth Arden, Inc. (2015). ABOUT ELIZABETH ARDEN. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from https://corporate.elizabetharden.com/about-elizabeth-arden/

Federman, M. N., Harrington, D. E. and Krynski, K. J. (2006). “Vietnamese manicurists: Are immigrants displacing natives or finding new nails to polish?” Industrial and Labor Relations. Review, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 302–318.

Gilels, D., Gorman, A., Huang, P., Liou, J., Mendiratta, A., & Philip, D. (2008). The U.S. Nail Salon Industry. Women & Environments International Magazine, (76/77), 18–21.

Greenhouse, S. (2007, August 19). At Nail Salons, Beauty Treatments Can Have a Distinctly Unglamorous Side. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/19/nyregion/19nails.html

Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2001) Dome´stica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence. Berkeley: University California Press.

Lacey, A. & Wright, B. (2009) Employment Outlook: 2008-18, MONTHLY LAB. REV., 82, 111.

Ly, M., & Tufts University. (2003). Assessing and communicating occupational health risks to Vietnamese nail salon workers (honors thesis). Medford, MA, USA: Tufts University.

Madnani, N. A., & Khan, K. J. (2012). Nail cosmetics. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprology, 78(3), 309–317. http://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.95445

Min, P. G. (2006). ‘‘Korean Americans.’’ In Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Ed.P. Gap Min. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. Pp. 230–259.

NAILS. (2010). Industry Statistics. Nails Magazine 2010 Big Book. Torrance, CA: Available from: http://files.nailsmag.com/Market-Research/bb2010–11stats-reprints.pdf

NAILS (2013). Nails magazine 2012-2013. The Big Book. Retrieved from http://files.nailsmag.com/Market-Research/NAILSbb12-13stats.pdf

Nisbet, R., Elder, J., & Miner, G. (2009). Handbook of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Applications (1 edition). Amsterdam ; Boston: Academic Press.

Roelofs, C., & Do, T. (2012). Exposure Assessment in Nail Salons: An Indoor Air Approach. ISRN Public Health, 1–7. http://doi.org/10.5402/2012/962014

Salon City Inc. (2009). Salon City Reports on Professional Beauty Federation’s Capitol Hill Event. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/salon-city-reports-on-professional-beauty-federations-capitol-hill-event-1200838.htm

The New York Time (NYT). (1910, January 6). TAKE YOUR BUNIONS TO THE FREE CLINIC; New Corporation Will Undertake Also to Kill Your Corns Without Charge. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=990CE7D91730E233A25755C0A9679C946196D6CF

Thu Quach, Kim-Dung Nguyen, Doan-Billings, P.-A., Okahara, L., Fan, C., & Reynolds, P. (2008). A Preliminary Survey of Vietnamese Nail Salon Workers in Alameda County, California. Journal of Community Health, 33(5), 336–343. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-008-9107-7

U.S. Department of Labor (2015). Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/personal-care-and-service/manicurists-and-pedicurists.htm

US Patents. (1915, April 13). Finger-nail shield.  Retrieved from http://www.google.com/patents/US1135382

Wahowiak, L. (2015). Health advocates helping US salons nail occupational safety. (Cover story). Nation’s Health, 45(3), 1–10.

Waldinger, R. (1994). The Making of an Immigrant Niche. International Migration Review 28(1):3–30.

Walsh, S. A. (2012). Beyond the Polish: An Examination of Hazardous Conditions in Nail Salons and Potential Solutions for the Industry in New York City. Journal of Law & Policy, 21(1), 243–282.

Woodbury, W. A. (1910). Beauty culture: A practical handbook on the care of the person, designed for both professional and private use. G.W. Dillingham.

Woodbury, W. A. (1915). The Care of the Hand: A Practical Text-Book on Manicuring and the Care of the Hand, for Professional and Private Use. Forgotten Books.